Administration - In government, this refers to the parts of government that implement laws and are responsible for the day-to-day running of the country. It is also called the executive branch of government.
Administrative accountability - Administrative government officials are held answerable to parliament and to the public for performing their duties in a democratic and constitutional way and for performing the tasks assigned to them by law.
Affidavit - A sworn statement signed in front of a Commissioner of Oaths. It can be used as evidence in court.
Affirmative action - A policy of correcting past inequalities. For example, hiring people from previously disadvantaged backgrounds in order to create a representative workforce.
Affirmative procurement policies - A policy of buying goods and services in a way that benefits previously disadvantaged communities and individuals. For example, government has a Preferential Procurement Policy that takes into account the gender and race of persons applying to provide services to government.
African customary law - The traditional laws of African tribes and cultures.
African Renaissance - "The rebirth of Africa": this refers to a movement to promote Africa's resources and culture and so build the economies of African countries and improve the quality of life for all Africans.
Agribusiness - Industries and businesses dealing with farming produce and services.
Agricultural Research Council (ARC) - Public entity that studies questions relating to agriculture and creates new products and services for the agricultural sector. For more information visit the ARC website.
Apartheid - "Separateness", the policy of the National Party Government in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. The government tried to keep race groups separate by forcing them to live in different areas, go to different schools etc. White people were regarded as the superior race.
Audit - An inspection that checks the accuracy and completeness of records. For example, a financial audit will check a Department's financial records to make sure that income and expenditure is recorded and that all taxes are paid.
Bafana Bafana - "Boys, boys", the affectionate term for the South African Soccer Team.
Bargaining Council - An industry body where workers and employers meet to make agreements on wages and working conditions.
Basic services - Essential services that government is expected to provide. For example, water, sanitation and electricity.
Batho Pele - "People First," the 8 principles of service delivery adopted by government, namely: consultation, service standards, access, courtesy, information, openness and transparency, redress and value for money.
Bill - A proposed law that has not yet been passed by the national or provincial parliament.
Bill of Rights - Chapter 2 of the Constitution sets out the basic rights enjoyed by all South Africans. It also sets out the limited circumstances in which these rights can be infringed.
Biotechnology - The commercial application of technology to living organisms or their products or processes to create new tools, products and services.
Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) - An economic transformation process aimed at increasing the number of black people that manage, own and control the country's economy. It also aims to decrease income inequalities.
Bushmen - Preferably called the San, these hunter-gatherers have inhabited South Africa for at least the last 100 000 years. The last remaining San people live in the Khalahari area of the Northern Cape.
Business Referral and Information Network (BRAIN) - A business network that provides information and support services to businesses. For more information visit the BRAIN website.
By-elections - Elections that take place outside of the general elections, usually when an elected representative has died or resigned and needs to be replaced.
By-laws - Laws enacted by local government (e.g., City of Cape Town by-laws on public nuisance).
Cabinet - The head of the Executive branch of government. It consists of the President, Deputy President and 24 Cabinet Ministers.
Cabinet Minister - The members of parliament that are chosen to be responsible for the various Departments of the Executive, for example the Minister of Education.
Capacity building - A strategy to increase the abilities of government officials and employees.
Cape Metropolitan Area - The collective local authority in the Cape Town area that comprised of 7 local municipalities. It is now the City of Cape Town.
Census - Official study into the demographics of the country which is usually undertaken every five years. The 2000 census showed that there are approximately 44.8 million people in SA.
Central government - The National Government.
Centre for e-Innovation (CeI) - The branch of the Provincial Government of the Western Cape responsible for providing advice on e-government and ICT strategy and implementing e-government and ICT projects.
Certified copies - Photocopies that have been official declared to be true copies of the originals by a Commissioner of Oaths.
City Improvement District - Non-profit organizations that use money from voluntarily increased rates in a particular area in order to improve services in that area.
Civil servant - Someone who works for government, also known as a public servant.
Civil service - The body of people working in the Administrative section of government to provide services to the public. These employees are not elected.
Civil society - The NGO's and other civil institutions that make up the political space between the household and the state. It is outside the formal political arena but becomes politicized in times of crisis or change.
Close Corporation (CC) - Type of business suited to small enterprises. The regulations and administration procedures are simple and flexible.
Co-operative - Communal business venture that is jointly owned by the members and which is run in a democratic, co-operative manner. For example, a farming co-operative where a group of people jointly farm the land and share the profits.
Co-operative government - Government where various components are required to assist one another. For example, in South Africa, the three spheres of government (national, provincial and local) work together in a supportive manner.
Commission for Conciliation Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA) - Independent body that deals with various labor issues and helps resolve disputes between employers and employees.
Commission for Gender Equality (CGE) - Institution created by the Constitution to promote and protect gender equality, particularly women's rights.
Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural. Religious and Linguistic Communities - Body created by the Constitution to promote respect for different cultures, religions and languages.
Commission of Enquiry - A government appointed investigation into a particular matter, usually headed by a Judge. For example, the Jali Commission on prison corruption.
Commissioner - A person who heads up a Commission of Enquiry or the person who decides cases in the Small Claims Court, or an abbreviation for Commissioner of Oaths.
Commissioner of Oaths - A person who can certify that a statement was made by the person who was supposed to have made it made by (affidavit) or a person who can certify that copies have been made from valid originals.For example, a police officer, a postmaster and a bank manager.
Committee - Group of people that meet to discuss a particular issue or to perform a specific function. For example, a parliamentary committee consisting of selected MPs will be appointed to consider new legislation before it is tabled in parliament.
Common law - Law that has been passed down through history and which does not exist as an Act of Parliament. For example, there is no specific Act that says murder is a crime. Murder is a common law offence.
Community Policing Forum (CPF) - Group of concerned citizens living and working in a particular area who work with the local police towards creating and maintaining a safe environment in the community.
Company - Type of registered business often referred to as a Pty (ltd). Shares in the company are privately owned.
Competitiveness fund - A cost-sharing grant that provides financial support to manufacturing and business-services entrepreneurs in order to encourage competition in South African business.
Congress Of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) - Trade union federation that supports the ANC. For more information visit the COSATU website.
Constitution - The highest law in South Africa, this document sets out the fundamental principles governing the country. It contains the Bill of Rights and sets out the structures and powers of the national, provincial and local spheres of government.
Constitutional Court - The highest court in the country. It only deals with cases involving constitutional matters. These include cases where human rights are violated and cases involving the powers and functions of government.
Consumer Protector - Government official responsible for acting on consumer complaints.
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) - International agreement on the rights of women.
Conveyancer - Lawyer who specializes in property transfers.
Copyright - Intellectual property rights over original creations. The owner of the copyright can prevent other people from recreating the original work without permission. For example, the author of a book has rights over it and no-one else can reproduce it for distribution or sale without permission.
Councillor - An elected representative at local government level who sits on the municipal or city council.
Cyber inspector - These are officials appointed in terms of the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, 2002 to monitor and report on unlawful activity on (or relating to) the internet.
Densification - Developing unused land in sparsely populated areas of the city to accommodate more people. This gives people access to land which is already serviced (electricity, water, sanitation).
Desertification - When an area starts to become a desert because the land has not been managed properly or because of climate change.
Digital divide - Gap between countries and communities that have access to information technology and those that don't.
Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) - The head of prosecutions in the Province, he assigns cases to each of the State prosecutors. The Director of Public Prosecutions in the Western Cape is Frank Kahn.
District municipality - A local authority that has municipal executive and legislative authority in an area that includes more than one municipality. For example, the West Coast District Municipality consists of a number of local municipalities.
E-government - Providing government services and information using information and communications technologies, like the internet.
E-strategy - The government strategy dealing with (amongst other things) electronic transactions, programs and means of achieving universal access to the internet and e-government initiatives.
Eastern Cape (EC) - One of South Africa's nine provinces, the Eastern Cape is situated along the East Coast.
Emerging exporters - New export businesses, generally from previously disadvantaged backgrounds.
Employment equity - Equal opportunity and fair treatment in the workplace. Previous disadvantage is redressed and unfair discrimination removed.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) - A report on the impact that a proposed development will have on the surrounding environment.
Executive - Also called the Administrative branch of government, the Executive is responsible for implementing laws and policies. For example the Minister of Health is a member of the Executive Council and she and her department form part of the Executive branch of government.
Export incentives - Government enticements, often in the form of tax breaks, to encourage export businesses.
Feasibility study - Research into the viability of a proposed project or business.
Financial policy - The guidelines and rules stating how Government will spend its money.
Financial Services Board (FSB) - Independent statutory institution that oversees the South African Non-Banking Financial Services Industry in the public interest. For more information visit the FSB website.
Fiscal - Government finance, including income from taxation and loans and expenditure.
Fiscal Year (FY) - The financial year. Budgets and financial audits are based on this. In South Africa the fiscal year starts on 1 April and ends on 31 March of the following year. So the fiscal year 2003/2004 started on 1 April 2003 and ends on 31 March 2004.
Foreign investment - Investments made in South Africa by people from outside of the country. This brings money into the country.
General Education and Training (GET) - Level of education encompassing Grades R to 9. All NQF qualifications of a similar standard also fall under this category.
Gini index or Gini coefficient - A scale to measure income disparity, in other words the difference between what poor people earn and what rich people earn. If everyone earns the same amount, the Gini Index is 0. If there is a big difference between what the poor earn and what the rich earn, then the Gini Index is close to 1. The Gini Index in South Africa in 1998 was 0.69.
GITO Council (Government Information Technology Officers Council) - Senior government officials representing National departments and Provincial Governments who are collective responsible for guiding and directing e-government strategy.
Good governance - An approved way of governing that includes accountability, responsibility, transparency, efficiency, effectiveness and respect for the rule of law.
Government Communication and Information Service (GCIS) - Government entity that is primarily responsible for communication between and providing information to government and the people. For more information visit the GCIS website.
Green Paper - A draft policy document on a particular topic prepared by a government Department.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - An annual measure of the total national output, income and expenditure in the economy.
Gross National Product (GNP) - The yearly measure of the total goods and services produced in the country and the income received from overseas investments.
Hansard - The word-for-word minutes of parliamentary debates and sittings.
High Court - Courts that hear cases involving more than R100 000. The High Court also hears appeals from the Magistrates' Court.
Ikapa elihlumayo - Western Cape strategy aimed at growing and developing the province.
Import and export control - Measures taken to ensure that goods brought into and taken out of the country are safe and legal.
Indaba - A meeting to discuss important issues.
Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA) - Statutory institution responsible for ensuring that television and radio content caters for all languages and cultural groups in South Africa and provides entertainment, education and information. For more information visit the IBA website.
Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) - The institution set up by the Constitution that is responsible for organizing elections and making sure that the elections are free and fair.
Indigenous - Native to or originating in an area. Something that is produced, lives or grows naturally in a particular region.
Inflation - The general and sustained increase in prices. It is measured as a percentage change in the consumer price index (CPI).
Informal settlement - Houses and shacks built on undeveloped land. There are no services like electricity, running water and sanitation.
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) - Technologies, products and services involved in displaying, processing, storing and transmitting electronic information.
Infrastructure - Basic facilities and services, such as roads, water pipes, schools and hospitals.
Insolvency - Bankruptcy. When a person cannot pay their debts even by selling all their possessions.
Intellectual property - Valuable intangible assets. The different types of intellectual property include copyright, patents, designs and trademarks. For example new designs, works of art or other original creations, innovative business processes or business branding.
Interdict - A court order to prevent someone from doing something or to force someone to do something.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) - A specialized UN agency responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates. It provides loans to member countries.
Interpellation - A fifteen minute debate around a question posed to a cabinet minister by a member of parliament.
Judgment - Legal decision made by a judge or magistrate.
Judicial Services Commission (JSC) - This Commission advises government on matters relating to courts, for example the appointment of judges.
Judiciary - The Courts that enforce laws and protect the rights guaranteed in the Constitution. This branch of government is independent from the legislature and the executive.
Jurisdiction - The area over which an authority has legal or other control and the matters that it has the power to deal with. For example the Magistrate's Court has jurisdiction over any minor crimes committed in the area around the court.
Justice system - The system of courts, prosecutors and police that is responsible for administering justice.
Karoo - A semi-desert area in the Western and Northern Cape.
Khoisan - A collective term for the Khoi and San people (also called the Hottentots and the Bushmen) who are the indigenous people of Southern Africa.
Khula - A government finance agency that is responsible for helping small, medium and micro-sized enterprises to get access to finance. For more information visit the Khula website.
Labor Court - Court where labor disputes are heard.
Labor tenants - People who work on a farm and are also permitted to live there.
Land invasion - Where people illegally occupy land in order to settle on it.
Language of learning and teaching (Lolt) - Language used in schools for learning; previously called the medium of instruction.
Law Society - A regulatory body that controls the work of attorneys.
Lay counselors - Trained volunteers who provide advice and support to members of their communities through counseling.
Legislation - Laws passed by parliament, also called Acts.
Legislature - Also called parliament, this branch of government consists of elected representatives (Members of Parliament or MP's) and is responsible for creating new laws and changing or scrapping old laws.
Library Business Corner - A section in a public library that provides information about starting and running a business.
Litigation - Legal action.
Local Government - District and local municipalities that are established in accordance with the Constitution. The powers and functions of local government are set out in the Constitution.
Macroeconomics - The study of the overall economic picture in the country.
Magistrates' Courts - The lower courts where a Magistrate makes the decisions. They deal with less serious criminal and civil matters arising in their geographical area.
Market Economy - An economic system where supply and demand determine how many of a certain item is produced and what the price is.
Mediation - A way of solving a dispute where an independent facilitator tries to reconcile the two parties.
Members of the Executive Council (MECs) - The members of the provincial parliament that are responsible for the various provincial Departments. For example, Mr. Ibrahim Rasool is the MEC for Finance and Economic Development in the Western Cape.
Micro-lending - The business of providing people with small loans, typically at a high interest rate.
Microeconomics - A study of the smaller components of the economy consumer, household and business behavior.
Mini-bus taxis - Sixteen-seater vehicles used as public transport.
MINMEC meeting - Meetings between the national Minister and the nine provincial Members of the Executive Council (MECs) dealing with the same portfolio. For example, when the entire provincial Ministers of Health meet with the national Minister of Health.
Minor - A person who is under 21 and is not regarded as a full adult under the law.
Minority - A group who is outnumbered. For example, in an election, the party that gets fewer votes than the others is the minority party.
National Assembly (NA) - The legislative branch of government. It consists of 400 elected members of parliament who are responsible for making or changing the laws of the country.
National Food Legislation Advisory Group (FLAG) - Body that advises government around food legislation in South Africa.
National government - The ruling body in the country. It consists of legislative (parliament), executive (the executive council) and judicial (the courts) branches that are responsible for making, implementing and enforcing the law.
National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) - Government body responsible for managing and coordinating prosecutions across the country.
National Qualifications Framework (NQF) - National, 8 level framework of recognized qualifications. Everyone who passes an NQF accredited course is registered so that their qualifications can be nationally recognized.
Natural resource management - Process of ensuring that natural resources are used in a sustainable manner.
Nkosi Sikilele Afrika - "God Bless Africa", this is the national anthem of South Africa and a number of other African countries.
Non-profit organizations - Public benefit organizations that do not aim to make a profit.
NQF qualification - Nationally recognized qualification that meets the standards and requirements set by SAQA.
NQF unit standard - Statement setting out the intended outcomes of a course or training program and what is required to pass. Every course that results in an NQF qualification is required to register a unit standard with SAQA, the NQF authority.
Ntsika - A government agency that is responsible for helping small businesses through training and support services. To find out more, visit the Ntsika website.
Occupational health - Health and safety in the workplace.
Oenology - Study of wine and wine-making.
Official Opposition - The party that has the second most seats in parliament. The DA is the official opposition party in the national government.
Ordinance - Law made by the Provincial Government.
Pan South African Language Board - Government body responsible for protecting, promoting and developing the eleven official South African languages.
Parliament - Also called the National Assembly, this is the legislative branch of government. It consists of elected representatives (Members of Parliament or MP's) and is responsible for creating new laws and amending or repealing old laws.
Parliamentary system - A form of government where elected representatives, through parliament, make the most important decisions, like creating new laws.
Passport - Official government document that certifies your identity and citizenship and permits you to travel abroad.
Patent - Legal recognition of ownership in an invention. If you have a registered patent in an invention then no-one else can produce that item for a set period of time.
Permanent resident - A person who is not a citizen of the country and does not have a South African identity document but who has been granted permission to stay in the country permanently.
Poverty alleviation program - Government plans to reduce poverty. They include grants and job creation projects.
Preferential procurement - A government affirmative action policy that encourages government departments and agencies to buy goods and services from previously disadvantaged individuals or businesses.
Presidential system - A system of government in which the most powerful political position is that of the president.
Private sector - The part of the economy that is owned by private individuals and is not under government control.
Privatization - Where public services, such as electricity supply, are sold to private companies.
Procurement procedures - The process that is followed when government departments buy goods or services. This includes tendering and contracting.
Proportional representation - A system of government where the number of seats in parliament held by one party is proportional to the number of votes that party received in the election. Different from a constituency based system where the winner in each area gets a seat in parliament.
Proudly South African - A campaign to promote locally produced goods and services. Local companies can register with the campaign and display the Proudly South African Logo on their products and advertising.
Provisional taxpayer - Businesses or individuals that don't pay tax every month and instead pay all their 2 or 3 times a year.
Provisions - The sections in a piece of legislation dealing with specific items. For example, it is a provision of the BCEA that employees must receive a pay slip from their employer.
Public Administration - The parts of government that implement laws, provide services to the public and are responsible for the day-to-day running of the country.
Public entity - An institution that operates separately from the national, provincial and local government and in which the State has a material financial interest.
Public participation - Process which allows members of the public to voice their opinions and become involved in decision making.
Public property - Land, buildings, vehicles or any other property owned by the State.
Public Protector - The constitutional institution charged with investigating complaints of corruption and unlawful actions by government officials or civil servants.
Public sector - The part of the economy that is owned by the state or that it is communally owned, including the national provincial and local authorities and public entities.
Public service - Also called the civil service, this is the part of government that provides services to the public, for example ensuring access to water and sanitation.
Public-Private Partnership - Where a private party contracts with a government body to provide a government service or fulfill an administrative function. The government body plays an active role in the partnership.
Quality Assurance (QA) - Checking process that makes sure that the quality of a product or service is of an acceptable standard.
Rate Payer's Association - Group of property owners who work together to ensure that property values and property-owners rights are protected within a community.
Regional services levy - The levy that businesses and employers need to pay to the local or district councils in which they operate.
Retrenchment - Terminating workers' employment contracts in order to reduce the costs of running a business or organization. The employees generally receive financial compensation.
Road Accident Fund (RAF) - A public fund that pays compensation to people who have been injured or killed in motor vehicle accidents.
Rule of Law - A legal principle that states that everyone should be subject to the same laws. It requires the law to be clear and says that laws should be equally, fairly and consistently enforced.
Rural areas - Areas that are outside of cities and large towns, including agricultural areas. There are lower levels of services and infrastructure in these areas and people living here need to travel greater distances to the nearest service points.
San - The indigenous people of the Western Cape. They were hunter-gatherers and are also sometimes called Bushman.
Schedule - Appendix to a piece of legislation that contains detailed information not included in the legislation itself.
Scorpions - The Directorate of Special Operations, this specialized policing unit can investigate and prosecute organized crime and corruption. It falls under the National Prosecuting Authority.
Section 21 companies - Non-profit organizations that are registered in terms of Section 21 of the Companies Act.
Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) - Government body responsible for organizing education and training programs within a specific sector. Each sector has its own SETA.
Senior Certificate - Previously called the matric certificate, this is the qualification received after a learner completes Grade 12.
Separation of powers - The split between the three branches of government, namely the legislature (that creates the law), the executive (that implements the law) and the judiciary (that enforces the law). The independence of each branch means that there are checks and balances which help guard against the abuse of power. It is a key element of democracy.
Servitude - A legal right to use land that belongs to someone else without paying rent. For example, you can have a servitude that allows you to collect water from a dam on another person's property.
Site-and-Service - A housing policy that provided a plot of ground with basic services such as a water tap and sanitation.
Skills development levy - Amount paid by all employers to SARS. The Skills Development Fund is intended to be used for employee training and skills development.
Small Claims Court - A Court with quick, cheap and simple procedures which can handle civil cases (i.e. non-criminal cases) involving up to R7,000.
Small, Micro and Medium Enterprises (SMME) - Businesses with fewer than 5 employees are often referred to as micro businesses. Those with 5 to 10 employees are regarded as small businesses, Businesses with 10 to 50 employees are seen as medium-sized businesses.
Social responsibility - A feeling of responsibility towards the community. In businesses it refers to an idea that businesses should contribute to the welfare of their communities, for example through bursary schemes.
Socio-economic rights - Also called second generation rights, these rights include the right to housing, the right to water and the right to an education. The state has a duty to provide access to these rights only in so far as its resources allow.
South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) - A public entity responsible for monitoring product standards in South Africa. For more information visit the SABS website.
South African Heritage Resources Agency (SAHRA) - Public entity that is responsible for protecting and promoting South African heritage resources. For more information, visit the SAHRA website.
South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC) - Body created by the constitution to promote, protect and monitor human rights in South Africa.
South African Law Commission (SALC) - The Commission that researches areas requiring new laws or significant changes to the law. Through a public participation process, the SALC develops recommendations for new laws which can include draft legislation.
South African National Defence Force (SANDF) - The armed forces of South Africa, including the Army, the Navy and the Airforce.
South African National Literacy Initiative (SANLI) - Volunteer initiative started by the Department of Education to increase literacy in South Africa.
South African Police Service (SAPS) - The national police service for South Africa. For more information visit the SAPS website.
South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) - Government body responsible for the National Qualifications Framework. For more information visit the SAQA website.
South African Revenue Service (SARS) - The government body responsible for collecting taxes and customs duties.
Spatial Development Initiatives - A coordinated effort to develop the potential of a particular area. It involves different Departments and can include national, provincial and local government.
Speaker - Member of Parliament selected to preside over parliamentary sittings and debates. They are responsible for ensuring that the rules and procedures of parliament are followed.
Spheres of government - Government consists of three spheres or levels. They are the national sphere, the provincial sphere and the local sphere.
Standing Committee - Permanent committee. For example, the Joint Standing Committee on the Quality of Life and Status of Women is a permanent committee of the national parliament.
State - Government or country.
State Law Adviser - Parliamentary legal advisor who checks that new laws are properly drafted and are constitutional.
Station commander - The head police officer at a police station.
StatsSA - Statistics South Africa
Statutes - Laws passed by parliament. Also called Acts or Legislation.
Statutory body - Public entity that is created in terms of a piece of legislation. For example, the Commission on Gender Equality is created by the Constitution.
Sub-council - A Sub-council is part of the municipal council. It represents a number of wards clustered together and can make recommendations to the Council on matters affecting that area. It can also be given powers to perform duties relating to that area.
Subpoena - An order requiring you to go to court to give evidence as a witness.
Subsidy - Money given by government to help an organization or a person buy something. For example, a housing subsidy is money that can be used to buy a house.
Summons (civil) - A legal document demanding that money be paid to a particular party by a certain date or else a court hearing will take place.
Supreme Court of Appeal - This court is the highest court for matters not relating to the Constitution. It hears appeals in cases that have already been decided in the High Court.
Swot analysis - A business tool which is used to assess the environment in which an organization is working. It stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and is often used when developing a strategic plan.
Tariffs - Fees.
Tax - Money that is paid to government for the running of administration and improvements to public roads and buildings, such as state hospitals. There are many different forms of tax including VAT, income tax and capital gains tax.
Taxi recapitalization - The plan to replace the country's felt of sixteen-seater mini-bus taxis with new, larger vehicles.
Tender - An offer to do a piece of work or supply goods or services at a specified price.
Tender committee - A formal committee set up to ensure that official policies and procedures are adhered to when a tender is selected.
Tertiary education - Formal education after secondary or high school. It includes university and technikon studies.
Tirisano - The national education strategy. Tirisano means working together.
Trade Agreement on Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) - An international agreement enacted in 1994 to protect intellectual property between signatory countries. It covers copyright, patents, trademarks, trade secrets, industrial designs, geographical indicia and integrated circuit layouts.
Trade agreements - Treaties between countries that encourage and regulate the sale of goods and services between them.
Trade incentives - Government inducements, usually in the form of tax benefits, to encourage trade.
Trademark - Distinguishing marks or characteristics that manufacturers place on their products. Trademarks help consumers recognize particular brands. No-one may use another person's registered trademark.
Transkei-Bophuthatswana-Venda-Ciskei (TBVC) - Former "independent homelands" set up by the Nationalist government in South Africa as part of their apartheid policies.
Transparency - A principle of governance that requires officials to act openly. It shows that government officials have nothing to hide and that all decisions and transactions can stand up to public scrutiny.
Transvaal - One of the provinces in South Africa prior to 1994. It incorporated the areas that now form the Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces.
Ultra vires - Outside of the law. For example, if a government official acts ultra vires, it means that they have acted outside the scope of their authority. They do not have the power or the right to do what they have done.
Unfair labor practice - Working conditions or actions and decisions relating to employment that are against the labor legislation.
United Kingdom (UK) - A single term referring to England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, The Isle of Man, and The Channel Islands.
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) - United Nations agency responsible for coordinating international developmental initiatives.
Universal access - Internet access for everyone, including people who have been previously disadvantaged and people with disabilities.
University of the Western Cape (UWC) - Higher education institution based in Cape Town.
Urban - A densely populated area with a high level of services and infrastructure, such as a city.
Urbanization - When people leave the rural areas to go to the urban areas. For example, when people leave farms to go to the cities to try and find work.
Value Added Tax (VAT) - Tax on the production and distribution of goods and services. In South Africa 14% VAT is added to the cost of an item when it is produced or distributed.
Veto - The power to reject a decision, even though the majority of people have accepted it. For example, the President has a right to veto legislation if he thinks that it is unconstitutional, even though parliament has voted to pass the law.
Visa - A legal document that says that you can lawfully enter the country. There are different kinds of visa that allow you to remain in the country for different lengths of time. For example a student visa will allow you stay for longer than a holiday visa.
Viticulture - Cultivation of grapevines.
Voters' roll - The list of registered voters. You cannot vote unless your name appears on the voters' roll.
Voting station - Official place in your area where you are required to go to cast your vote.
Wage determination - Regulations that set out what the wages are for a specific industry.
Warrant - A legal document that gives the police permission to arrest someone or to search a premises. You can also get a warrant to seize property.
Western Cape (WC) - One of the nine provinces in South Africa. It incorporates the Southern and Western parts of the country.
White Paper - A policy document prepared by one of the government Departments.
Work permit - Official document provided by Home Affairs to foreigners who wish to work in South Africa. It is illegal for non-citizens to work here without this permit.
World Bank - The name given to four international institutions which provide loans and other financial assistance to countries. The World Bank institutions are owned by countries that contribute to the International Monetary Fund.
World Health Organization (WHO) - United Nations agency tasked with coordinating international health work to promote the highest possible level of health for all peoples.
World heritage sites - Natural and cultural sites that have historical significance. There is an international list of these sites which is managed by the Intergovernmental World Heritage Committee. For example, Robben Island is a world heritage site.
Xhosa - The indigenous South African people living predominantly in the Eastern and Western Cape. Their language, isiXhosa, is one of the 11 official languages.
Yellow fever certificates - Official document that is issued after you have received a yellow fever vaccine. It states that you were inoculated against yellow fever in the last six months.
Zoning - Process of dividing geographical areas into different sections for various purposes. For example, municipal zones in urban areas prevent business from operating in residential areas.
Zulu - An indigenous people of the KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. Their language, isiZulu, is one of the 11 official languages.